- This note aims to provide the Members of the ANIT Committee with a state of play on existing literature and data sources on live animal transport through links to key information sources and existing reports and studies.
- While some of the topics covered here (notably animal welfare, meat markets and Farm to Fork Strategy) do not fall formally within the remit of the ANIT Committee, they have however been included in this information note as they provide useful background elements on the policy context.
1. LIVE ANIMAL TRANSPORT
- Animal welfare during transport
- Reports / studies
Welfare of animals exported by sea, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 29 April 2020.
Welfare of Animals Exported by Road, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 25 February 2020.
Pilot Project on best practices for animal transport, Report, 2019.
Overview report on systems to prevent the transport of unfit animals in the European Union, DG Health and Food Safety, August 2016.
Study visits to improve Member State controls on animal welfare during transport, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 18 November 2015.
Study on the impact of Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport, International Consulting – Euro Consultants – Wageningen UR, April 2011.
European Parliament resolution of 14 February 2019 on the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport within and outside the EU
Report of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development and motion on the implementation of Council Regulation No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport within and outside the EU, 31 January 2019.
- Supporting documents
EU trade and transport of live animals, At a Glance, EPRS, February 2020.
Regulation (EC) 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations, European Implementation Assessment, EPRS, October 2018.
- European Court of Justice (ECJ)
Case C – 424/2013 on Regulation (EC) No 1/2005, Judgement of 23 April 2015
Scientific opinion concerning the welfare of animals during transport, EFSA Journal, 11 January 2011.
EFSA assesses welfare risks to animals during transport, Press release, 11 January 2011.
- Australian Government
Review of the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock (ASEL): Sea Transport, Final report Technical Advisory Committee, 19 March 2019.
Release of the ASEL review report, 19 March 2019.
Live export trade assessment, ABARES Report, 8 July 2014.
- Parliament of Australia
Live export—a chronology, 6 September 2019.
Regulating live exports, Briefing, 2016.
Deloitte Access Economics. The impact of Freight Costs on Australian Farmers, Report for Agrifutures, May 2019.
Washington University Global Studies Law Review. Animal Welfare Standards and Australia’s Live Exports Industry to Indonesia: Creating an Opportunity Out of a Crisis, Rev (181) 2013.
Katrina, J. Craig. Beefing Up the Standard: The Ramifications of Australia’s Regulation of Live Export and Suggestions for Reform, Macquarie Law Journal 5 2013.
Commonwealth of Australia. Independent Review of Australia’s Livestock Export Trade, 2011.
- Australian Stakeholders and Newspapers
Meat & Livestock Australia. New ‘fit to load’ guide released, 2 July 2019.
Australian Livestock Exporters Council
ALEC submission – Comments on the draft Regulation Impact Statement (RIS): Live sheep exports to or through the Middle East – Northern Hemisphere, February 2020.
NSW Farmers. Where is the live sheep export trade headed next?, July 2019.
What would Australia look like without live exports?, 20 September 2018.
- Institut de l’élevage (IDELE)
Live Sheep Export Trade: Review of the Draft Regulation Impact Statement, Report commissioned by Animals Australia, February 2020.
Sheep Central. Animals Australia backs live sheep ban call with report findings, 14 February 2020.
Economic Issues Associated with the South Australian Live Sheep Export Trade, Report commissioned by Animals Australia, April 2018
RPSCA. Independent Economic Report Supports End to Live Sheep Exports from South Australia, Media Release, 19 April 2018.
Financial Review. Shutting down sheep trade would have little economic impact on farmers, 9 April 2018.
WA Farmers. New Live Export Data Shows Potential Impact of a Trade Ban, 20 April 2018.
- Animals (MDPI Open Journal papers).
Developing an Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Livestock Transported by Sea, Animals 10 (4): 705, April 2020.
The Effects of Heat Stress on Sheep Welfare during Live Export Voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Animals 10 (4): 694, April 2020.
Climatic influences on the mortality of sheep during long-distance sea transport, Animals, 13(5): 1 – 9, October 2018.
Effects of Short Transport and Prolonged Fasting in Beef Calves, Animals, 8 (10): 170, October 2018.
“I Feel Sorry for Them”: Australian Meat Consumers’ Perceptions about Sheep and Beef Cattle Transportation, Animals 8 (10): 171, October 2018.
A Systematic Review of Heat Load in Australian Livestock Transported by Sea, Animals 8 (10): 164, September 2018.
- Grandin, T. (Ed.). Livestock Handling and Transport, CAB International, 2019 (also cited at §2.6).
- Cazacu, C. Romanian livestock industry. Study on the effects of exports of bovine and ovine livestock vs. refrigerated/frozen meat export option, Research report by Original Media, Bucharest, September 2018.
- Clemens, W. S. et al. (DE). Tiertransporte in der Schweinehaltung: Führen mehr Informationen und Wissen bei Verbrauchern zu einer positiveren Einstellung?, German Journal of Agicultural Economics, 66 (1) 2017.
- C Simova, V. et al. Effects of travel distance and season of the year on transport-related mortality in cattle, Animal Science Journal, Vol. 88 (3), 2018.
- Sapere Research Group. Economic impact of phasing out the live sheep export trade, Report prepared for the World Society for the Protection of Animals, March 2013.
- European Livestock and Meat Trade Unions (UECBV). UECBV supports the EU Commission in asking for better enforcement of EU animal welfare rules during transport, Press release, 19 July 2019
- Heinrich Böll Stiftung – Friends of the Earth Europe (see trade data – reference also cited below §4.5).
DE Der Fleischatlas 2018: Alle Ausgaben und Grafiken
EN Meat Atlas 2014
- Eurogroup for animals
Animal welfare during transport, Briefing, 2020.
A strategy to reduce and replace live animal transport, 18 November 2019.
Fact File. Long distance livestock transports, 2016.
- Animals’ Angels
10 Years of EU Regulation 1/2005 (YouTube Video)
Live animal transport in Europe – Latest news and updates
Live Animal Transport: Closing the Gap between EU Requirements and Enforcement, A Collection of Academic Articles on Compliance with the EU Council Regulation 1/2005 on the Protection of Animals during Transport, October 2020.
Press release, 14 October 2020
- Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF)
EN Web site
DE Web site
- Compassion in World Farming (CIWF).
The global trade in live animals (campaign)
Ban live exports (campaign)
- Animal Transportation Association (ATA). Web site
- Voiceless. Live export
- RSPCA. Live cattle export
- Mediterra. Chapter 12. Trade and logistics: the case of the livestock and ruminants meat chain, Mediterra 2014, pages 227 to 244.
• European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA). EAZA Position Statement on Council Regulation 1/2005: Protection of Animals during Transport, December 2010.
- The Guardian
Live Export: animals at risk in giant global industry, 20 January 2020.
EU’s live export trade puts welfare of millions of animals at risk – Report, 19 May 2020.
Animals farmed: US beef trade to restart, chicken culls and 12-storey pig farms, 22 September 2020.
2. ANIMAL WELFARE: GENERAL ISSUES
- Animal Welfare – General Issues
40 years of animal welfare (Brochure)
- EU Reference Centres for Animal Welfare
- Studies / Overview reports
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and to the Council on the overall operation of official controls performed in Member States (2014-2016) to ensure the verification of compliance with food and feed law, animal health and welfare rules, DG Health and Food Safety, 29 January 2019.
Commission Staff Working document accompanying the Report on the overall operation of official controls performed in Member States (2014-2016) to ensure the verification of compliance with food and feed law, animal health and welfare rules, 14 September 2018.
Welfare of cattle on dairy farms, Overview Report, DG Health and Food Safety, 30 November 2017.
Study on the impact of Animal Welfare International Activities, Final Report, Vol. 1, Main text, November 2017.
Educating professionals in animal welfare, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 3 March 2017.
Study visits on rearing pigs with intact tails, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 2 March 2017.
Use of slaughterhouse data to monitor welfare of broilers on farm, DG Health and Food Safety, 18 January 2017.
Animal welfare at slaughter in Member States, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 27 October 2015.
Impact assessment accompanying the Communication on the European Union Strategy for the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2012-2015, Commission Staff Working Paper, 19 January 2012.
- Projects (CORDIS)
ECONWELFARE Project. Good animal welfare in a socio-economic context: Project to promote insight on the impact for the animal, the production chain and society of upgrading animal welfare standards, Final Report, Wageningen UR, 2017.
Animal welfare in the European Union, Study for the PETI Committee, January 2017.
Comparative analysis of EU standards in Food Safety, Animal Welfare and other non-trade concerns with some selected countries, Policy Department B, May 2012.
- European Court of Auditors (ECA)
Animal welfare web
Welfare of pigs at slaughter, Scientific Opinion, EFSA Journal, 17 June 2020.
Pigs at slaughter: measures to address welfare concerns, Press release, 17 June 2020.
Slaughter of animals: poultry, EFSA Journal, 13 November 2019.
Guidance on Risk Assessment for Animal Welfare, EFSA Journal, 25 January 2012.
Guidelines for risk assessment of animal welfare, Press release, 25 January 2012.
- World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
Animal welfare: focusing on the future, Scientific and Technical Review Vol 33(1), 2014.
OIE global animal welfare strategy, May 2017
Adoption of the first global strategy on animal welfare, Press release, May 2017.
Legislative and regulatory options for animal welfare law, FAO legislative study, 2011.
- Institut de l’élevage (IDELE)
Bien-être animal – Dossiers – Publications (FR)
- Animals Journal. The Impact of a Negative Media Event on Public Attitudes Towards Animal Welfare in the Red Meat Industry, Animals 10 (4): 609, April 2020
- Grandin, T. (Ed.). Livestock Handling and Transport, CAB International, 2019.
- Cités. Politicization of animal rights, Vol 79, Issue 3, 2019
- Porcher, J. (FR). Cause animal, Cause du Capital, Ed. Le Bord de l’Eau, 2019.
- Barrau, A. & Schweltzer, L. (FR). L’animal est-il un homme comme les autres ?, Dunod, 2018.
- Mench, J. Advances in Agricultural Animal Welfare: Science and Practice, Elsevier Science & Technology, 2017.
- Amos, N. and Sullivan, R. The Business of Farm Animal Welfare, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.
- Chastain, C.B. Animal handling and physical restraint, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.
- Pelluchon, C. (FR). Manifeste animaliste, Alma Éditeur, 2017.
- Compassion in World Farming (CIWF)
Guide to best practice: animal welfare at livestock markets, September 2015.
- European Livestock and Meat Trade Unions (UECBV)
- International Finance Corporation (IFC)
- European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA)
EAZA Animal Management and Covid-19 Information sheet, 30 March 2020.
- Agri Mutuel(FR)
Le bien-être animal, une réalité encore floue pour les consommateurs, 8 octobre 2020.
Pour les volaillers français, le salut ne viendra pas de l’élevage en plein air, 8 octobre 2020.Text.
3. FARM TO FORK STRATEGY
- Farm to Fork Strategy – F2F site – For a fair, healthy and environmental-friendly food system.
Eurogroup for Animals. EP’s resolution on Green Deal asks for better animal welfare, Press release, 22 January 2020.
European Reference Center for animal welfare Pigs. On the EP’s resolution on Green Deal, 6 February 2020.
- Supporting documents
Research for the AGRI Committee- The Farm to Fork Strategy implications for agriculture and the CAP, Internal In-Depth Analysis, Policy Department B, 15 May 2020
Farm to Fork Strategy: Striving for healthy and sustainable food, At a Glance, EPRS, 17 June 2020.
European Union food system, Briefing, EPRS, September 2020.
Approaches to Sustainable Agriculture, IUCN Report, 2020
- The Scientific Advisory Board on Agricultural Policy, Food and Consumer Health Protection (WBAE) of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL)
EN Developing an integrated food policy and creating fair food environments, Press Release, 21 August 2020.
Aligning the post-2020 Common Agricultural Policy with the European Green Deal, 30 September 2020.
- Agricultural and Food Economics
- Matthews. The new CAP must be linked more closely to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, 3 August 2020.
- European Scientist
The EU’s Farm-2-Fork and Green Deal: Are They More than Happy Talk, 24 September 2020.
- European Livestock and Meat Trade Unions (UECBV)
- Arc 2020
4. MEAT MARKETS AND LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS: OVERVIEW
- AGRI Web site
Agri-food trade – Latest Monitoring EU agri-food trade (January – March 2020) (including live animals), September 2020.
EU agricultural markets short-term outlook, Report (including meat & dairy products), Edition Nº 28, autumn 2020.
- Researches / Supporting documents
The EU pig meat sector, Briefing, September 2020.
The EU poultry meat and egg sector, In-Depth Analysis, EPRS, November 2019.
Research for AGRI Committee – The EU cattle sector: challenges and opportunities – milk and meat, Wageningen UR, Policy Department B, February 2017.
- Rabobank Research
Beef Quarterly Q3 2020: New Forces Shaping Future UK Beef Imports, Rabobank Research, August 2020.
The Australian Beef Cattle Seasonal Outlook 2020: The Battle of Bulls Vs. Bears, Rabobank Research, April 2020.
World Beef Map 2019: Trade into the 2020s – Navigating a Rising Sea of Uncertainty, Rabobank Research, December 2019.
Global Animal Protein Outlook 2020: Seeking Opportunities in an Uncertain World, Rabobank Research, November 2019.
- US Farm Policy News: African Swine Fever in Germany Continues to Impact Pork Markets, 7 October 2020.
- Euro Choices: National Food Consumption Patterns: Converging Trends and the Implications for Health, 17 August 2020.
- Agrivalue SA. Sector Study Pig Sector Argentina, Netherlands Enterprise Agency – Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 31 October 2019.
- Perry, B.D. et al. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems, Cambridge University Press, April 2018.
- Reuters: Livestock-hog futures rise on pork demand, higher cash prices, 7 October 2020
- The Dairy Site: CME update: live cattle futures reach highest price since 20 August, 8 October 2020.
- Eur Activ. Criticism of Germany’s new laws in the meat and food industry, 31 July 2020.
5. COVID-19 IMPACTS ON FOOD SYSTEMS: LATESTS DOCUMENTS
- Science of the Total Environment
- Ecoscope. Shocks, risks and global value chains in a COVID-19 world, 25 August 2020.
- IFPRI. Book launch: COVID-19 and global food security – what have we learned so far?, 17 August 2020.
- Science Journal. COVID-19 risks to global food security, 31 July 2020.
- CAST. Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Food and Agricultural Markets, June 2020.