Publication: October 2020  
Authors: Albert Massot and François Nègre
  • This note aims to provide the Members of the ANIT Committee with a state of play on existing literature and data sources on live animal transport through links to key information sources and existing reports and studies.

  • While some of the topics covered here (notably animal welfare, meat markets and Farm to Fork Strategy) do not fall formally within the remit of the ANIT Committee, they have however been included in this information note as they provide useful background elements on the policy context.
  • Resolutions

European Parliament resolution of 14 February 2019 on the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport within and outside the EU

European Parliament resolution of 12 December 2012 on the protection of animals during transport

  • Reports

Report of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development and motion on the implementation of Council Regulation No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport within and outside the EU, 31 January 2019.

  • Supporting documents

EU trade and transport of live animals, At a Glance, EPRS, February 2020.

Regulation (EC) 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations, European Implementation Assessment, EPRS, October 2018.

  • European Court of Justice (ECJ)

Case C – 424/2013 on Regulation (EC) No 1/2005, Judgement of 23 April 2015

  • EFSA

Scientific opinion concerning the welfare of animals during transport, EFSA Journal, 11 January 2011.

EFSA assesses welfare risks to animals during transport, Press release, 11 January 2011.

  • Australian Government

Life Animal Export trade

Review of the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock, April 2020.

Review of the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock (ASEL): Sea Transport, Final report Technical Advisory Committee, 19 March 2019.

Release of the ASEL review report, 19 March 2019.

Live export trade assessment, ABARES Report, 8 July 2014.

  • Parliament of Australia

Live export—a chronology, 6 September 2019.

Regulating live exports, Briefing, 2016.

  • Analyses

Deloitte Access Economics. The impact of Freight Costs on Australian Farmers, Report for Agrifutures, May 2019.

Washington University Global Studies Law Review. Animal Welfare Standards and Australia’s Live Exports Industry to Indonesia: Creating an Opportunity Out of a Crisis, Rev (181) 2013.

Katrina, J. Craig. Beefing Up the Standard: The Ramifications of Australia’s Regulation of Live Export and Suggestions for Reform, Macquarie Law Journal 5 2013.

Commonwealth of Australia. Independent Review of Australia’s Livestock Export Trade, 2011.

  • Australian Stakeholders and Newspapers

Animals Australia

Web site

Frequently Asked Questions (FQA)


Meat & Livestock Australia. New ‘fit to load’ guide released, 2 July 2019.

Australian Livestock Exporters Council

Web site – economic impact

ALEC submission – Comments on the draft Regulation Impact Statement (RIS): Live sheep exports to or through the Middle East – Northern Hemisphere, February 2020.

NSW Farmers. Where is the live sheep export trade headed next?, July 2019.

ABC News

What would Australia look like without live exports?, 20 September 2018.

Live export review recommends major reductions in sheep numbers on Middle East-bound ships, 17 May 2018.

Pegasus Economic.

Live Sheep Export Trade: Review of the Draft Regulation Impact Statement, Report commissioned by Animals Australia, February 2020.

Sheep Central. Animals Australia backs live sheep ban call with report findings, 14 February 2020.

Economic Issues Associated with the South Australian Live Sheep Export Trade, Report commissioned by Animals Australia, April 2018

RPSCA. Independent Economic Report Supports End to Live Sheep Exports from South Australia, Media Release, 19 April 2018.

Financial Review. Shutting down sheep trade would have little economic impact on farmers, 9 April 2018.

WA Farmers. New Live Export Data Shows Potential Impact of a Trade Ban, 20 April 2018.

  • Animals (MDPI Open Journal papers).

Developing an Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Livestock Transported by Sea, Animals 10 (4): 705, April 2020.

The Effects of Heat Stress on Sheep Welfare during Live Export Voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Animals 10 (4): 694, April 2020.

Climatic influences on the mortality of sheep during long-distance sea transport, Animals, 13(5): 1 – 9, October 2018.

Effects of Short Transport and Prolonged Fasting in Beef Calves, Animals, 8 (10): 170, October 2018.

“I Feel Sorry for Them”: Australian Meat Consumers’ Perceptions about Sheep and Beef Cattle Transportation, Animals 8 (10): 171, October 2018.

A Systematic Review of Heat Load in Australian Livestock Transported by Sea, Animals 8 (10): 164, September 2018.

DE Der Fleischatlas 2018: Alle Ausgaben und Grafiken

EN Meat Atlas 2014

  • Eurogroup for animals

            Animal welfare during transport, Briefing, 2020.

A strategy to reduce and replace live animal transport, 18 November 2019.

            Fact File. Long distance livestock transports, 2016.

  • Albert-Schweitzer-Stiftung für unsere Mitwelt (DE)

Tiertransporte : Zahlen und Fakten

  • Tierschutzbund (DE)

Hintergrundinformationen zu Tiertransporte

  • Animals’ Angels

Web site



            Animal transports in the EU

EU live exports

The Myth of the Enforcement of Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during animal transport, March 2016

            10 Years of EU Regulation 1/2005 (YouTube Video)

  • FOUR PAWS International. EN , DE, AT

Live animal transport in Europe – Latest news and updates

Live Animal Transport: Closing the Gap between EU Requirements and Enforcement, A Collection of Academic Articles on Compliance with the EU Council Regulation 1/2005 on the Protection of Animals during Transport, October 2020.

Press release, 14 October 2020

  • Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF)

EN Web site

DE Web site

EU animal transports

Life exports by road

Life exports by sea

  • Compassion in World Farming (CIWF).

The global trade in live animals (campaign)

Ban live exports (campaign)

Transport investigations

European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA). EAZA Position Statement on Council Regulation 1/2005: Protection of Animals during Transport, December 2010.

  • Animal Welfare – General Issues

Animal Welfare site

40 years of animal welfare (Brochure)

Animal welfare labelling

Options for animal welfare labelling and the establishment of a European Network of Reference Centres for the protection and welfare of animals, Report, 28 October 2009

Roadmap – Fitness check of the EU legislation on animal welfare of farmed animals

Infographics & Factsheets – Animals

                2018 Factsheets

Work programmes

  • EU Reference Centres for Animal Welfare

Web Site


  • Reports

Audit reports

Annual reports

Country profiles

  • Studies / Overview reports

Overview reports

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and to the Council on the overall operation of official controls performed in Member States (2014-2016) to ensure the verification of compliance with food and feed law, animal health and welfare rules, DG Health and Food Safety, 29 January 2019.

Commission Staff Working document accompanying the Report on the overall operation of official controls performed in Member States (2014-2016) to ensure the verification of compliance with food and feed law, animal health and welfare rules, 14 September 2018.

Special Report No 31/2018, Animal welfare in the EU: Closing the gap between ambitious goals and practical implementation, 19 November 2018.

Welfare of cattle on dairy farms, Overview Report, DG Health and Food Safety, 30 November 2017.

Study on the impact of Animal Welfare International Activities, Final Report, Vol. 1, Main text, November 2017.

Educating professionals in animal welfare, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 3 March 2017.

Study visits on rearing pigs with intact tails, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 2 March 2017.

Use of slaughterhouse data to monitor welfare of broilers on farm, DG Health and Food Safety, 18 January 2017.

Animal welfare at slaughter in Member States, Overview report, DG Health and Food Safety, 27 October 2015.

Impact assessment accompanying the Communication on the European Union Strategy for the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2012-2015, Commission Staff Working Paper, 19 January 2012.  

  • Projects (CORDIS)

ECONWELFARE Project. Good animal welfare in a socio-economic context: Project to promote insight on the impact for the animal, the production chain and society of upgrading animal welfare standards, Final Report, Wageningen UR, 2017.

  • European Court of Auditors (ECA)

Special report No 31/2018: Animal welfare in the EU: closing the gap between ambitious goals and practical implementation, 14 November 2018.

  • EFSA

Animal welfare web

Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

                Welfare of pigs at slaughter, Scientific Opinion, EFSA Journal, 17 June 2020.

                Pigs at slaughter: measures to address welfare concerns, Press release, 17 June 2020.

                Slaughter of animals: poultry, EFSA Journal, 13 November 2019.

                Guidance on Risk Assessment for Animal Welfare, EFSA Journal, 25 January 2012.

                Guidelines for risk assessment of animal welfare, Press release, 25 January 2012.

  • Institut de l’élevage (IDELE)

            Bien-être animal – Dossiers – Publications (FR)

  • Resolutions

European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal

Eurogroup for Animals. EP’s resolution on Green Deal asks for better animal welfare, Press release, 22 January 2020.

European Reference Center for animal welfare Pigs. On the EP’s resolution on Green Deal, 6 February 2020.

  • Supporting documents

Research for the AGRI Committee- The Farm to Fork Strategy implications for agriculture and the CAP, Internal In-Depth Analysis, Policy Department B, 15 May 2020

Farm to Fork Strategy: Striving for healthy and sustainable food, At a Glance, EPRS, 17 June 2020.

European Union food system, Briefing, EPRS, September 2020.

  • The Scientific Advisory Board on Agricultural Policy, Food and Consumer Health Protection (WBAE) of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL)

EN Developing an integrated food policy and creating fair food environments, Press Release, 21 August 2020.

DE Web site, BMEL

  • IEEP

Aligning the post-2020 Common Agricultural Policy with the European Green Deal, 30 September 2020.

  • Agricultural and Food Economics
  1. Matthews. The new CAP must be linked more closely to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, 3 August 2020.
  • European Scientist

The EU’s Farm-2-Fork and Green Deal: Are They More than Happy Talk, 24 September 2020.

  • AGRI Web site

Food, Farming, Fisheries


CAP Indicators update

Agri-food trade – Latest Monitoring EU agri-food trade (January – March 2020) (including live animals), September 2020.

EU agricultural markets short-term outlook, Report (including meat & dairy products), Edition Nº 28, autumn 2020.

  • Researches / Supporting documents

The EU pig meat sector, Briefing, September 2020.

The EU poultry meat and egg sector, In-Depth Analysis, EPRS, November 2019.

Research for AGRI Committee – The EU cattle sector: challenges and opportunities – milk and meat, Wageningen UR, Policy Department B, February 2017.

  • FAO

The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2020, September 2020.

  • OECD – FAO

Agricultural Outlook 2020-2029 (including meat & dairy products), July 2020.

  • Rabobank Research

Animal protein web site

Beef Quarterly Q3 2020: New Forces Shaping Future UK Beef Imports, Rabobank Research, August 2020.

The Australian Beef Cattle Seasonal Outlook 2020: The Battle of Bulls Vs. Bears, Rabobank Research, April 2020.

World Beef Map 2019: Trade into the 2020s – Navigating a Rising Sea of Uncertainty, Rabobank Research, December 2019.

Global Animal Protein Outlook 2020: Seeking Opportunities in an Uncertain World, Rabobank Research, November 2019.

  • Heinrich Böll Stiftung – Friends of the Earth Europe

DE Der Fleischatlas 2018: Alle Ausgaben und Grafiken

EN Meat Atlas 2014

  • European Livestock and Meat Trade Unions (UECBV). Meat the Facts (European Livestock voice – campaign), Press release, 29 September 2019.
  • Animals’ Angels

Animal Markets


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